Published in The A - Z of Drinks

Australian wines - Tasmania. From a standing start in the 1980s, the wines of the island state have become the subject of Tas-Mania in the last few years. The industry is starting to mature as the vines themselves age and add the dimension of complexity. It is one of the most happening regions and change occurs at breakneck pace. Most activity is around Launceston in the north (Tamar Valley ), Pipers River to the east and the Coal River and Derwent Valley around Hobart in the south. Along with the newest, East Coast, they are at around the same latitudes as New Zealand’s winegrowing regions and it shows. In the south the Antarctic influence is more real than the somehow theoretical version that shapes things on the south and south-west coast of the mainland. The topography is as diverse as the climate, which can be cooler or wetter, warmer or drier than anywhere in Victoria and the result is a slow, steady ripening of the grapes, with naturally low yields – the perfect place for wine. Here at the margins, global warming may dictate exactly which grapes it’s perfect for, but for now, Pinot Noir and Chardonnay are everywhere, but Pinot Gris and the other Alsace grapes are doing well. Some are also betting that rising temperatures may make the Merlot, Cabernet Sauvignon and Shiraz route the way ahead. Of the 250-plus wineries, most are tiny, but there is a show of muscleflexing at the next, entrepreneurial (rather than corporate), level among growers who have the experience to move nimbly to exploit the next big thing. The horse-trading over the best sites is dizzying – deals come and go in the blink of an eye. (Andrew Pirie: Tamar Ridge , Pirie Estate Freycinet and Pirie South ; Clover Hill , Domaine A , , Kreglinger – owners of Ninth Island and Pipers Brook ; Stoney Rise .)

It’s a pretty place, and wine tourism comes as part of the business plan, not as an afterthought or something grafted on. Tazzie also ships to the mainland cool-climate ‘base wine’ with enough of the all-important acidity to lift the quality of some of the best Aussie sparkling wine (Arras Hardy’s; Jansz , Bay of Fires – both now owned by – now owned by Yalumba). 

Published in The A - Z of Drinks

Australian wine - New South Wales. The Hunter Valley is where Australia’s love affair with wine started in 1828 and it still dominates any discussion of New South Wales (NSW) wine. A quick sweep through the arc of winemaking areas around Sydney will take us there.

You would have to start in the small, southernmost area for the name alone: Tumbarumba (Penfolds’). Most of Canberra’s vineyards are in fact in NSW – they’re at very cool altitudes, ideal for Riesling (Helm ), and it was here that the craze for Shiraz-Viognier blends began. Good neighbours are moving in next door in Hilltops (Chalker’s Crossing , McWilliams ) but most grapes still go out to do that élevage thing of being blended to raise the standard of wines from some of the quality-conscious volume players (Casella , De Bortoli – including for their Noble One, probably the best Australian Sauternes-style sweet wine).

The Central Ranges Zone comprises Cowra, for some excellent Chardonnay and Verdelho (Windowrie ); Orange, where, attracted by the coolness at 600m, top winemakers have been all over it like a rash recently (Cumulus , Logan , Philip Shaw ); and Mudgee, where good reds are made by some big names such as Rosemount and Tyrrell’s and some smaller ones such as Huntington and Poet’s Corner.

For all that the upper part of the Hunter Valley is where Australia’s now rather stormy love affair with Chardonnay began (with Tyrrell and Rosemount) in the 1970s, the bit we’re most interested in is, officially, called the Lower Hunter Valley and, universally, just ‘the Hunter’. Its influence punches well above its puny three per cent weight of Australia’s output. It’s a hot, clammy, sub-tropical region with lots of rain but with Sydney only 80 miles to the south it’s very switched on to wine tourism and its ageworthy, dry Semillon is what a lot of those tourists come looking for.

Grassy enough when young to be mistaken for Sauvignon, in ageing for up to twenty years these deeply distinctive wines start to take on buttery, toasty, nutty aromas – the characteristics of oak ageing – but the surprise is that generally no new oak is used. What initially seems so familiar then takes you somewhere completely different, when lanolin and a deep, hard-edged minerality take over. A naturally low alcohol level is another part of the sleight-of-hand and, for geeks, the best producers (Brokenwood , Lake’s Folly , Keith Tulloch , Margan , McWilliams , Tyrrells ) prevent malolactic fermentation taking place. This is what keeps its elbows sharp. The same producers do well with Chardonnay and Shiraz, often somewhat idiosyncratically – the Shiraz is leathery, the original sweaty saddle – and Verdelho is making a comeback, but it’s the Semillon which, along with Rutherglen Muscat and Barossa Shiraz, is one of Australia’s primary contributions to the world’s distinctive wine styles.

But in case we get too fancy – which the Aussies wouldn’t like – let’s not forget that away to the west, in the great square, irrigated block of desert that is Riverina (attractively aka the Murrumbidgee Irrigation Area) those hydroponically produced swathes of sunshine in a bottle have changed the world’s wine-drinking habits on a scale so tectonic it makes anything that ever came out of the Hunter Valley look like a ripple on a boating pond.

Published in The A - Z of Drinks

Australian wine - South Australia. Even with about fifty per cent of the country’s total wine production, it’s stretching it to call South Australia (Red Fin, Tiddy Widdy Well ) – or that south-eastern corner of it below about 33ºS where the grapes are grown – Australia’s California. It is the heart of it though, with most vineyards within 70–80 miles of Adelaide, and only the relatively featureless Riverland and Limestone Coast beyond the easy reach of the wine tourist.

In contrast, it’s impossible to avoid calling the Barossa Valley Australia’s Napa – it’s the biggest quality-wine region, the tourist side is admirably well-developed and as a result the big firms all need to be here – they dominate production, albeit often through prestigious subsidiary companies that seem to operate with an enviable degree of autonomy. (Penfolds – their Grange, Australia’s ‘first growth’, an icon for decades and traditionally a blend of wines from all over and is assembled in Barossa. The ultimate South-Eastern Australian? It may have the cult status, and a price to match, but its un-oaked sibling Saint Henri is the insider’s choice and a comparative bargain; Lion Nathan’s St Hallett , Jacob’s Creek , Wolf Blass and Hardy’s all have bases here. It’s the medium-sized firms, many of them independent, including Bethany , Charles Melton , Duval , Elderton , Glaetzer , Grant Burge , Greenock Creek , Kaesler , Langmeil (who have Shiraz vines from 1843), Maverick , Peter Lehmann , Rockford , Spinifex , Teusner , Torbreck , Turkey Flat , Two Hands and Yalumba that make most of the wines that maintain Barossa’s world-class reputation.)

There are also lots of small farmers, some of whom, if they’re lucky enough to have old-vine Syrah and Grenache, are assiduously courted by bigger firms for their crop. Lucky to survive the Cabernet Sauvignon invasion, some of the vines are over 100 years old and only these old-timers have root systems deep enough to be dryfarmed, i.e., without irrigation, which is essential elsewhere due to the hot, dry summers. The old vines make the distinctive, richly concentrated, brooding style – often accented by something chocolatey – that is one of Barossa’s trademarks. That Aussie knack of mixing tradition and innovation is always in evidence, though, and the shiny new things are suave, Côte-Rôtie-style blends (with a little Viognier to soothe the Shiraz’s knitted brow) and, another juicy Rhône-U-like blend – GSM, that’s Grenache, Syrah and Mourv`edre. Good Cabernet Sauvignon (Penfolds) and sophisticated Semillon (Peter Lehmann ) keep the flag flying for Bordeaux varieties.

Barossa is contiguous with the Eden Valley to the east, where cooler temperatures at higher altitude are ideal for Riesling (Grosset, Heggies , Pewsey Vale , Hewitson , Yalumba , Thorn-Clarke , Torzi Matthews). Eden emerged in the 1960s in the Steingarten vineyard (Jacob’s Creek ) and now produces some of the best Riesling in the world. Leading the charge has been Jeffrey Grosset who, in the crucible of contemporary Aussie winemaking, including a joint venture with Yalumba (called Mesh ), has nonetheless gone full circle back to the nineteenth-century roots of it all, admitting it’s taken him thirty years to fully understand his two plots of land. Roistering reds are provided from Shiraz. Eden’s other claim to fame is as the home to one of the few pretenders to Grange’s crown: Henschke’s Hill of Grace and, with a supporting role, the fine and fruit-cakey Irvine’s Grand Merlot.

Pretty, winding Clare Valley, where winemaking also dates from the 1840s, has varied soils, even higher slopes and cooler temperatures to give its elegant Riesling, mostly teased from the limestone terra rossa soil by small independent growers (Tim Adams , Jim Barry , Grosset , Kilikanoon , Leasingham , Mitchell , Mount Horrocks , Neagle’s Rock , O’Leary Walker , Petaluma , Pikes , Skillogalee , Wakefield , Wendouree ) the edge of extra acidity. The slate of Polish Hill – lots of Silesian Lutherans sought sanctuary in South Australia in the nineteenth century – makes it one of the best sites. Reds are never neglected in Australia and Shiraz and Cabernet Sauvignon, with a notably eucalyptus twang, are particularly good.

South of Adelaide, McLaren Vale is another big name in Australian wine and the wide variation of soils in its rolling countryside account for an equally wide variety of grapes and styles of wine. Full-throttle Grenache and Shiraz shine – some are from 100-plus-year-old, drygrown vines – and Cabernet Sauvignon from here makes big chocolate, mocha-toned wines. Warm summers cooled by sea breezes – always a good combination – complete the recipe for success. John Reynell spotted the potential in 1838 and his Chateau Reynella is now HQ for Hardy’s. (Battle of Bosworth , Chapel Hill , Clarendon Hills , Geoff Merrill , Kangarilla Road , Kay Brothers , Leconfield , Lloyd , Mitolo , Noon Winery , SC Pannell , Paxton , Rockbare , Simon Hackett , Willunga , Wirra Wirra , Woodstock and D’Arenberg – labels on their McLaren Vale wines have the red sash.) The region runs into the Southern Fleurieu peninsula where the cool maritime climate has attracted major investment in making sumptuous Pinot Noir (Tappanappa ) and great things are already happening.

The long-established Langhorne Creek area made wines for blending into the likes of Jacob’s Creek until recently, but that’s changing fast for the best producers and Jacob’s loss is our gain (Bleasdale , Bremerton , Brothers in Arms , Glaetzer , Matilda Plains ).

Out of Adelaide’s back door and up the Mount Lofty Ranges, the Adelaide Hills have all the variety to be expected from a region that spans fifty miles but a common thread is the coolness to be expected on sites mostly above 400m. Australia’s best Sauvignon Blanc is grown here, but half is red, mainly Cabernet Sauvignon, Pinot Noir and Merlot (Ashton Hills , Bird in Hand , Geoff Weaver , Henschke , Leabrook , Nepenthe , Setanta , Shaw and Smith , Petaluma-owned Tim Knappstein ).

Winemakers all over Australia have been running their slide-rules (‘Dad? What’s a slide-rule?’) over the terra rossa soil of the vast Limestone Coast area (and its twenty-four sub-regions, most of which nobody outside of them has ever heard of). Of the ones some people have heard of, most of Padthaway’s (Henry’s Drive , Two Hands ) wines were trucked out for blending until Hardy’s slideruler in chief worked out it was cheaper to build the Stonehaven winery which put the place on the map; Mount Benson (Norfolk Rise ) must have promise if France’s Michel Chapoutier and the Hunter Valley’s Ralph Fowler want to make wine there and ditto Wrattonbully (Hollick , Tappanappa , Yalumba ).

The one that everybody has heard of – Coonawarra – is a featureless, flat strip of terra rossa ten miles long by one mile wide. This is where all sorts of silly fruits were originally grown before the wine thing started in the 1960s. The best Cabernet Sauvignon (it accounts for sixty per cent of the vines) in Australia comes from this cool, southernmost sector where frost and rain are a problem – it’s all rather French, in fact. It’s a traditional place and being so narrowly confined, there’s not much space for the tyros (who wouldn’t like it much anyway – not many people do – it’s too isolated and too quiet, there’s no ‘scene’ here, just a couple of dozen wineries, including Fosters brands, which predominate with Wynns – much the biggest – Penfolds , Lindemans and Jamieson’s Run ; otherwise, there are Balnaves , Hollick Majella , Bowen , Mildara , Parker Estate , Katnook , Penley , Leconfield , Petaluma , and Rymill ) with not enough labour so they carefully use machines.

Up north, Riverland is the South Australian contribution to the great irrigated winescape that stretches away along the Murray River into Victoria and New South Wales and is the ‘real’ South-Eastern Australia. As in California’s Central Valley this is desert – as opposed to dessert – wine, although amazingly some of the latter is made too, and has been described by Australia’s leading wine writer, James Halliday, as ‘hydroponically grown’. It accounts for over half of SA’s output (and nearly a third of the whole of Australia’s) and relies completely on being able to turn on the tap to good effect – doesn’t mean there aren’t some good-value wines though. Victoria The biggest producing state until phylloxera struck, now the most varied with 600 producers spanning from the desert to the coolest, southernmost spots on the entire mainland, and heading up in to the hills. A whistle-stop tour is in order.

Those billion exported bottles? The own labels, pop-up brands, private brands, the bag-in-box wine, the tanker wine? The MurrayDarling is where it comes from (and it accounts for eighty per cent of Victoria’s production). So does the bulk of the fruit for the big brands – the more quality-aware of them supplement it with some fresher cooler-climate stuff. The French have been doing it for centuries – they call it élevage. There is good stuff as well from some of the small(er) producers (Andrew Peace , Angove’s , Broken Shackle , Deakin , Marktree , Sunnycliff , Trentham Estate , Willandra , Wombat Hill ).

The north-east Victoria Zone includes sweltering Rutherglen, (Buller , Campbells , Chambers , Morris , Stanton and Killeen ) and Glenrowan (Bailey’s ) where unique, fortified Liqueur Muscat and Tokay (the Muscadelle of Sauternes), toffee-and-coffee-rich stickies are aged forever in small barrels. There are big reds as well – Durif is a speciality in Rutherglen. The King Valley is dominated by family-owned Brown Brothers in Milawa, where they have done more to advance the proliferation of varieties through research in their Kindergarten winery than anyone. At around 300m in the Alpine Valleys, the wines have the freshness of cool nights about them (Castagna, Gapsted and Giaconda – one of the best Australian Chardonnays).

To the south-east the vast Gippsland area is, with a few exceptions (William Downie , Bass Philip ), the untapped future, while heading west through the Strathbogie Ranges, a glass of the fizz sourced here (Green Point , owned by Moët et Chandon, and perhaps the best Australian sparkling wine) is a good idea on the way to Nagambie Lakes, a sub-region of Goulburn Valley, with Shiraz vines from 1860 plus extraordinary wines from the oldest Marsanne vines in the world (Tahbilk , Mitchelton ).

Next door, Heathcote is, to mix a metaphor, the crucible of cool where some of Australia’s brightest new winemaking stars (and a few oldies – Brown Brothers , Chapoutier and Laughton , Greenstone , Heathcote Winery , Jackson , Jasper Hill , Redbank , Shelmerdine , Two Hands , Tyrrell’s , Wild Duck Creek ) coax rich, dry-grown Shiraz out of the 500-million-year-old Cambrian soils. Southwards, Macedon Ranges is one of the coolest climates in Australia but Chardonnay and Pinot Noir can hack it (Bindi , Curly Flat , Virgin Hills Bendigo (Balgownie ). Those Cambrian soils continue west into , Fairbank ) and Pyrenees (Dalwhinnie , Redbank , Taltarni ) before we get to the limestone Grampians where sparkling wine stars alongside spectacular Shiraz – and sometimes both in the same wine (Best’s Great Western , Mount Langi Ghiran and Seppelt ).

On the coast, Henty (Crawford River , Tarrington ) heads us back towards the ring of wine areas around the thirsty, discriminating city of Melbourne. The first is empty, windswept, maritime Geelong (Scotchmans Hill , Gary Farr , Shadowfax ), followed by Sunbury (Craiglee ) before we get to Victoria’s indisputably world-class wine region, the Yarra Valley, which has complex topography, a cool climate, and dauntingly high standards shared by some of Australia’s best winemakers (Coldstream Hills , De Bortoli , Diamond Valley , Giant Steps , Mount Mary , Phi , Mac Forbes , Seville Estate , Yarra Yering , Yeringberg , Yering Station ) making Australia’s best Pinot Noir, some classy Chardonnay (especially made without malolactic fermentation) and all-the-rage Shiraz-Viognier blends.

To the south of the city, the Mornington Peninsula has some topclass winemakers, including some amateurs who’ve been making such good, acidity-charged wine from Pinot Noir, Pinot Gris and Chardonnay in the cool, maritime conditions that they’ve turned pro (Main Ridge , Ten Minutes by Tractor , Stonier , Kooyong , Yabby Lake , Paringa ).

Published in The A - Z of Drinks

Australian Wine - Western Australia. The varied climates and terrains of the 350-odd-mile coast of ‘WA’ suit a wide range of grape varieties that make wine in a wide variety of styles, almost all of which have one thing in common: high quality. There are very few WA wines in super-markets and even the lowest-priced are well above average price. This is a good thing and reflects the fact that, refreshingly, the biggest producers (Houghton – pronounced ‘horton’, Plantagenet and Evans & Tate ) seem to make only good – and often good value – wines.

The southernmost region of WA is Great Southern, where Antarctic Ocean currents cool coastal areas sufficiently for succulent Pinot Noir and racy Riesling while intense Shiraz and rich Chardonnays emerge from the warmer interior. Most wineries are brand-spanking but there are established role-models in the Mount Barker sub-region (Plantagenet , Forest Hill ) to give the tyros in Denmark (Howard Park, West Cape) and Frankland River (Alkoomi, Ferngrove, Frankland Estate) something to aim for. In the latter the Westfield Vineyard (Houghton) was where winemaker Jack Mann started the modern WA industry and the remaining two easternmost regions Albany and Porongurup have yet to hit their export stride.

Heading west, the Pemberton region (Brookland Valley – also in Margaret River; Fonty’s Pool ; Picardy ; Seven Day Road ) is rapidly making a name for itself beyond its perimeters. The name of the beguiling Margaret River region is probably known to more people than that of WA itself. Cooled by the onshore Fremantle Doctor breeze, it’s not just a pretty face: there are over 100 producers, many of them adept with a wide range of varietals including Cape Mentelle , Evans and Tate , Marchand & Burch , McHenry Hohnen , Palandri , Suckfizzle/Stella Bella and Voyager , with rich age-worthy Cabernet Sauvignon (Vasse Felix), rounded Bordeaux blends (Cullen) and tropical Chardonnay (Leeuwin Moss Wood , Pierro, Woodlands) at the top of the list and Shiraz, Semillon and Sauvignon Blanc not far behind.

The Swan Valley north of Perth is where things started (1834 saw the first vintage) – it once made ninety per cent of the region’s wine. That’s now down to ten per cent: the 100ºF summer temperatures don’t suit modern styles – most of the original wines were fortified. The cooler Perth Hills area to the east is seeing a lot of new investment and is one to watch.

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